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Flat Plan (Flats)

Drawing of the flats for a journal showing imposition and demonstrating colors.

Flat Size

Size of product before folding, but after printing and trimming.


Technique of printing on a web press using rubber or synthetic plates with raised images.


Complete printing of a sheet with an ink or varnish.

Flush Cover

Cover trim to the same size as inner pages.


Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.

Fogging Back

Used in creation type more clear by lowering density of an image.

Foil Emboss

To foil stamp and imprint an image.

Synonym: heat stamp .

Foil Stamp

Process of printing that liberates foil from its support when stamped with the heated die. Synonyms: Block print, hot foil stamp, stamp


A bindery machine used to folding printed materials.

Fold Marks

Markings indicating where a fold is to occur with printed matter located at the top boundaries.


Gatefold sheet restrict into a publication which is used for a map or chart.

Synonyms: Gatefold and Pullout

Folio (page number)

Page number in a publication.


Every side of a signature.


Organization of a printed product or layout i.e. size, style, shape etc.

Form bond

Lightweight bond made for business forms. It is easy to perforate.

Synonym: Register bond.

Form Roller(s)

Roller to come in contact with the printing plate.

For Position Only

Low-priced copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling not intended for reproduction.


The binding process in which folding, rounding, backing, head banding and reinforcing are included.


Sputter or container in a printing press, to facilitate fluids like ink, varnish or water. Synonyms: Duct

Fountain Solution

Combination of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to avoid ink from adhering to the nonimage area.

Synonym: Dampener solution .

Four-color Process Printing

Technique of printing that uses magenta, cyan, yellow, and black to create full-color images.

Synonyms: Color process printing, Full color printing, and Process printing .

Free Sheet

Paper made from ripe wood fibers along with chemicals and washed free of impurities.

French Fold

A one side printed sheet, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.

Full-range Halftone

Halftone varies from 0 % coverage in its highlights to 100% coverage in its shadows.

Full-scale Black

Black partition made to have dots throughout the complete tonal range of the image.

Synonyms: Full-range black.


Galley Proof

Confirmation of type from any Source of metal type or photo type.


To replicate two or more different printed products at the same time on one sheet of paper during one press run.

Gate Fold

A sheet which fold up where both sides fold toward the trough in partly cover layers.


Signature pulls together next to each other in the proper sequence for binding

Ghost Halftone

Common halftone whose thickness has been reduced to produce a very soft image.


Phenomenon of appearing printed image too light because of ink malnourishment.


Gold leafing of the edges of a book in the book arena.


Light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry through paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish etc.

Gloss Ink

Ink used and printed on coated stock for instance the ink will dry without diffusion.


Generic term used to differentiate among printing papers e.g. rating, category, class, finish or brand of paper

Graduated Screen Tint

Screen dye that changes thickness gradually and smoothly.

Grain Direction

Major direction in which fibers in paper become associated during built-up.

Grain Long Paper

Fibers of paper run similar to the long dimension of the sheet.

Grain Short Paper

Paper whose fibers run simultaneously to the short dimension of the sheet.


Weight of paper in grams per square meter (g/sm).

Graphic Arts

Industries, crafts, and professions associated with designing and printing on paper and other substrates.

Graphic Arts Film

Film whose emulsion give up high contrast images suitable for reproduction by a printing press.

Graphic Design

Collection of kind and illustration elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.


illustration elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.


Printing process using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.

Gray Balance

Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image.

Gray Component Replacement

Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films with black ink.

Gray Levels

Quantity of diverse gray tones that can be repeat by a computer.

Gray Scale

Band of gray values vary from white to black.

Grind Edge

Synonym term for strapping edge when referring to ideal bound products


More or less 3 mm along the spinal column that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.

Gripper Edge

Border of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, so going first through the press.

Groundwood Paper

Reasonably priced paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.


Unit of measurement for weight of paper. (grams per square meter).


Inside boundaries toward the backside of the binding edges.


Hairline (Rule)

Refer to very small space, thin line or close register, depending on who is using the term and in what situation.

Half-scale Black

Black division made to have spot only in the shade and midtones.


Take photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dot.

Halftone Screen

Part of film or glass containing a framework of lines that split light into dots.

Halo Effect

Faded shade sometimes neighboring halftone dots printed.

Hard Dots

Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.

Hard Mechanical

Mechanical including paper and acetate and made using paste-up techniques as compared to electro mechanical.


Margin at the top of a page.


Imposition with tops of pages facing bottoms of other pages.

Heat-set Web

Web press operational with a range to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.


Defect in printing which is mainly visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dust on the plate.

High-fidelity Color

Color replicates using six, eight or twelve separations compared to four-color process.

High-key Photo

Photo whose most important details come into view in the highlights


Lightest segments of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.

Hinged Cover

Ideal bound cover scored 1/8 inch from the spine so it folds along the edge of the spine. at the hinge.

House Sheet

Paper reserved in stock by a printer and fit for a variety of printing jobs.


Relate to a specific color for instance yellow or green.


Image Area

The real area on the printed stuff that is not limited to ink coverage.


Laser output device use by means of photosensitive paper or film.


Display of pages on flats or mechanicals with proper arrangement so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.


Speed of a press i.e. one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.

Impression Cylinder

Cylinder that pushes paper against the plate or blanket on a press, thus outline the image.


To print modified copy on an earlier printed sheet.

Ink Balance

Relationship of the thickness and dot gains of process inks to each other.

Ink Fountain

Tank on a printing press that holds ink.

Ink Holdout

Feature of paper that averts it from absorbing ink, consequently allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper.

Ink Jet Printing

Printing method which use spraying droplet of ink through computer-controlled nozzles.

Inner Form

Form whose images all appear inside the folded signature.

In-Plant Printer

Division of an agency, business or association that does printing for main organization.


An additional item positioned into the publication loose Inside a publication.

Intaglio Printing

Printing process whose representation carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas.


Printed pages freely put in a publication.


A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.

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